The Psalter and martyrology of Ricemarch
V. 1. Text, notes, indices — v. 2. Plates
The Psalter and martyrology of Ricemarch
V. 1. Text, notes, indices — v. 2. Plates
|In AD 410 the Roman Emperor Honorius sent a message to the people of Britain informing them that they should no longer consider themselves part of the Roman Empire whose armies were now unable to protect them from attack. He advised them to look to their own defences. This message came after a lengthy period of unrest during the late fourth century during which there had been a number of major barbarian attacks on the province of Britain and on other parts of the Roman Empire. During this time there had also been attempts to remove Britain from the Empire the most well remembered been led by Magnus Maximus (Macsen Wledig) who was eventually defeated and killed in AD 388. In the Mabinogion Maximus is recorded as being the founder of a number of Welsh royal lineages.
After Britain ceased to be part of the Roman Empire in the early fifth century AD the romanised way of life did not immediately collapse but the centralised administration was weakened with the growth of new kingdoms throughout Britain. In Wales these included, among others, the kingdoms of Gwynedd, Powys, Dyfed and Glywysing. Over the next few hundred years the borders of the kingdoms remained fluid as power shifted from one to another and new kingdoms, such as Ceredigion and Brycheiniog, emerged. The new kingdoms were each ruled by a king chosen from the ruling families.
Early Welsh Kingdoms (source: Davies, W. 1982)
The rulers of the Welsh kingdoms resided in a court or llys, a defended settlement which was sometimes placed within an old hillfort as at Dinas Emrys which lies below Snowdon. Dinas Emrys has long been associated with Amhrosius (Emrys) recorded in Welsh folklore as an early ruler descended from Roman parentage. Another hillfort which was re-occupied is Caer Drewyn in Clwyd. Former Roman forts such as Brecon Gaer were also re-occupied. The royal court or llys consisted of a collection of dwellings (usually of wood) which housed the royal family, workers, soldiers, craftsmen and their families. The main building was a hall where the ruler and his followers feasted. The buildings were protected by a stone or earth rampart and wooden palisade.
Plan view of Dinas Powys (source: Alcock, L. 1963)
One of the most thoroughly investigated of these early power centres is Dinas Powys near Cardiff where a possible wooden hall and barn were excavated. They lay within an enclosure (c60 metres by 50 metres) surrounded by rock-cut ditches and protected by banks of clay and rubble. What makes the site exceptional is the quantity of high class metalwork, jewellery, glass and imported pottery and the quantity of cattle bones recovered indicating that the high status and material wealth of the occupants. Pottery found on the site was imported from as far away as Aquitaine (France), north Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. This pottery is associated with the trade in wine. Different types and styles can be dated to between the fifth and seventh centuries AD.
We know very little of the buildings or types of settlements where ordinary people lived. This is partly because these did not change much for over 1500 years covering the Iron Age, Roman period and early Middle Ages (up to the Norman Conquest). The other difficulty encountered is that, with the exception of the high class imported pottery, few dateable objects have been found on domestic sites in Wales. It is therefore difficult to know at what date for example, a group of round wooden or stone houses was occupied. During the early Middle Ages the majority of people were farmers living in wooden or stone houses which were circular or rectangular. Sometimes these were set within a stone or wooden enclosure. Other buildings were probably used as barns and byres. At Cefn Graeanog in the Lleyn Peninsula a rectangular, stone-built enclosure contained three circular huts, a garden and a rectangular barn and byre. Excavation produced evidence of ironworking and farming activities during the period between the third and fifth centuries AD.
The other main types of buildings were churches and monasteries. Most references to early churches in Wales suggest that they were built of wood. Some were small buildings made of woven hazel which housed only a hermit others were groups of buildings surrounded by an earthen bank and wooden fence where monks or nuns lived and worked. Later in the period some of the wooden buildings, particularly the churches, were rebuilt in stone. In the language spoken in the period (an early form of Welsh similar to that spoken in Cornwall and northern Britain) the work for enclosure was llan which often forms the first part of the placename denoting an old religious site. Documented sites include Llangorse (near Brecon), Llangollen and Llanelwy (Clwyd). Few physical remains of such religious centres now survive although the early circular enclosures can be traced in a number of places, as at Meifod (Montgomery).
Although earlier churches and monasteries have rarely survived there are a considerable number of early Christian crosses and memorial stones. Many of the memorial stones are marked with a cross together with a memorial to the dead person written in an abbreviated form of latin. One of these, erected as a memorial to Dervacus, at Maen Madoc, Ystradfellte in Brecknock lies next to the old Roman road from Coelbren to Brecon Gaer. Some memorials are written in Ogham a non-alphabetical form of writing based on long and short lines scored across the corner of a stone or piece of wood. This form of writing was devised in Ireland and brought to Wales by Irish settlers.
5/6th Century memorial stone from Trallwng, near Brecon which in Ogham reads “CVNACENNIVI ILVVETO” = THE STONE OF CUNACENNIVI ILVVETO”,
Contact with Ireland had its origins in the prehistoric period. Trade and contact were maintained throughout the Roman period but from the fifth century settlement of Irish people took place in parts of western Wales. This is reflected in placenames particularly in Dyfed. Settlers came also from northern Britain to north Wales. They were reputed to have been led by Cunedda who came from the northern kingdom of Gododdin (in the Edinburgh area). They brought with them the earliest “Welsh” poem the Gododdin which relates a tale of the warriors of Gododdin who fought and died at a major battle against the Saxons near Catterick (Yorkshire) in the late sixth century.
To the east, Wales was bounded by the kingdom of Mercia whose rulers were intermittently at war with the kingdoms of Powys and Brycheiniog. In AD 196 Aethelflaed of Mercia invaded Brycheiniog capturing the queen but no permanent conquest was made. Powys was subject to attacks from Mercia from the seventh century. In the following century the border was demarcated by the building of a great dyke which, although not continuous, ran from the north coast of Clwyd to the south coast near Chepstow. The dyke is named after the king who ordered its construction: Offa of Mercia.
In the early eleventh century AD the history of the kingdoms of Wales was dramatically altered by the Norman Conquest.
Suggested sites to visit:-
Dinas Emrys, Gwynedd (SH 606492).
(Leaflets prepared by the Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust are available for some of these sites. Details of other sites in your area can be obtained by contacting the SMR officer.)
DYFED ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST
RHIF YR ADRODDIAD / REPORT NO.2012/7
RHIF Y PROSIECT / PROJECT RECORD NO. 100735
MEDIEVAL AND EARLY POST-MEDIEVAL HOLY WELLS:
A THREAT-RELATED ASSESSMENT 2011
Gan / By
The Orthodox Church of the Holy Fathers of Nicea (Shrewsbury) is a medieval church of the Early English style, with Tudor and modern additions and alterations. It was originally the parish church of the village of Sutton, which is mentioned in the Doomsday Book. The manor belonged to the Wenlock Abbey as far back as the ninth century so it is highly probable that some church existed from that time and possible that it was on the site of the present church. The church fell into disuse in the 19th century and was virtually unused in the 20th until it was bought by the Orthodox community in 1994. It has been extensively restored since.
As you approach the church from the gate into the field what you see is the red brick west wall with the medieval door and a gothic style wooden window. This wall was built in 1702. The bell cote is modern and replaces the original, a painting of which may be seen inside the church. At the ends of the stone walls on either side you will notice evidence of the continuation of the church particularly a door jamb on the north side. The north, south and east walls are medieval and were built in at least three stages. If you look at the south wall you will see that there is a distinct line in the stonework just below the dressed stone window sills. This is a ‘setting-out’ line and below the line the stonework is entirely composed of red sandstone. Above the line however the stone is both red sandstone and buff coloured Grinshill stone. (This feature is equally observable in both the north and the east walls). This suggests that these walls were built in two distinct stages. This might imply that the wall below the setting-out line is older, perhaps much older, than the wall above the setting-out line. It is not now possible to know. What we can do is to date the higher part of the walls by the thin lancet windows to the Early English period: late 12th to early 13th century. Notice that above the windows there are courses of later dressed Grinshill stone. These date from the Tudor restoration of the building in about 1545.
From recent (2010) geophysical archaeological surveys we now know that originally the church was about three yards longer (to the west) than at present. So, enough room for a north and south door (the door jamb of the north door can still be seen) and a west wall. Perhaps this had three lancet windows to match those in the east wall. It seems likely that some time in the early 16th century this west wall collapsed and the church fell into serious disrepair. The collapse of the west wall may account for the truss that now supports the east wall. At the apex of this east wall the stonework is very thin so the restorers may have decided to support the roof with three wooden trusses: the one in the east that covers the top of the central lancet window, one in the middle and one that is encased in the brickwork in the brick west wall.
The door is medieval. Water colours of the church in the 18th century do not show this door but it probably was recovered from use elsewhere and had originally belonged to the church.
The ancient font stands in the North West corner of the church. It is made low like this so that the candidate for baptism could climb into the font. It therefore is made for a time when adults or children – rather than babies – were being regularly baptised. This would put its date around the time of King Alfred – circa 900 A.D.
Lancet windows. These are typical of the Early English style. Long, thin but with pointed rather that rounded tops. Only the window in the north east corner and those in the east wall have retained their original arches. It is suggested that the reason for these narrow windows is that they were a security feature – they were too thin for anybody to climb through.
The central truss is Tudor work and is considered to be very fine. Originally it seems to have been painted a grey green. The roof that you see is almost entirely new but notice that some of the original purlins remain – they are significantly smaller than the modern ones.
Niches. On either side of the central lancet in the east wall there are two crudely cut niches. These were for statues and are of considerable interest. They appear to have had three manifestations. Originally their bases were in line and about six inches above the window reveal sill. Later the bases were raised about 15 inches bringing them in line with bottom of the east window – and the sill at this point was blocked up as well. Later still they were bricked in entirely and cemented over. When the church was restored these developments were removed. A reasonable conjecture as to why these developments took place is as follows.
From the central lancet widows all around the eastern half of the church you will notice that the walls are painted with red and ochre designs. For most of this area the designs consist of tendrils with small stencilled flowers. These are medieval wall paintings that were discovered during the restoration of the church in 1996. On the north wall there is a figurative painting showing the assassination of Thomas Ã Becket the archbishop of Canterbury. He was murdered for political reasons in Canterbury cathedral in 1170 by four knights attendant on King Henry II. The Pope declared him a martyr saint soon afterwards and a considerable cult developed with pilgrimages to his shrine in Canterbury Cathedral. We do not know why this subject should have been chosen for our church. One suggestion is that there was local interest in Thomas because Shrewsbury Abbey had numerous important relics associated with him. Although our painting has lost a great deal of paint and its original lustre, it is still possible to make out the most significant features.
The wall paintings are of considerable interest and historic importance. First of all they are a complete scheme, which may in fact be unique, for in most churches there are succeeding layers of paintings as they were renewed over the years. Second the subject of the martyrdom of Thomas Ã Becket is unusual and nowhere has the cross been cut as it is here. This is the oldest figurative painting in Shrewsbury. Originally the painting would have been very brightly coloured.
The most striking modern feature in the church is the new icon- screen. These are present in all Orthodox churches. They serve to join the things of God, behind the screen, with the people in front of the screen. They normally have central doors, only used during the services and two doors on either side for normal access. Our screen was carved and built by a member of the congregation, Aidan Hart, using materials found in the church when we bought it, particularly the oak joists supporting the floor and parts of some of the dilapidated pews. The screen is thus made of English oak, and follows the design of many Early English rood screens but the carving is in the Byzantine style, reflecting both the ancient fabric and the traditions of the Orthodox Church.
The hand painted icons are also painted by Aidan Hart. In the lower tier from left to right there are:
The Holy Table is carved in a Byzantine style from three different types of English stone. The design is based on a Holy Table in a Byzantine church in Ravenna.
You will also notice the modern gallery which runs across the church. This serves two functions: to hold the walls together and to provide space used by the choir during services and various other activities. Notice the painting underneath the gallery on the ceiling. This shows a canopy with the cross between the symbols for the four Evangelists. An eagle for St John, an angel for St Matthew, a lion for St Mark and a bull for St Luke. This was painted by a member of the congregation, Derek Simons.
Other icons. Above the bishop’s throne there is a Greek icon showing Christ in Bishop’s vestments. This subject is normally placed near the throne. On the back wall there is a large icon of St Ninian one of the earliest British saints associated with the Lake District and South West Scotland. On one of the window sills is an icon of the five British saints most closely related to the local area:
We do not know when Christianity arrived in Shropshire. Tradition tells us that St Simon the Zealot came to Britain soon after the arrival of the Roman Legions (43 AD) but his activities are related to Yorkshire. What we do know however is that the Romans established a very substantial city about five miles East of Shrewsbury at what is now called Wroxeter. It was called Viroconium Cornovii and was the fourth largest city in Britain. The words ‘Wroxeter’ and ‘Wrekin’ (the hill that dominates East Shropshire) are directly derived from Viroconium. Probably it was pronounced ‘Wrekonium’.
With the withdrawal of the legions at the beginning of the fifth century a period of considerable political instability followed. However Viroconium continued to flourish for some time. For instance St Germanus of Auxerre came to Britain to counter the teachings of the heretic Pelagius in 429 and again in 447. He certainly visited Viroconium. Indeed it seems to have been the base for his mission into what is now mid and north Wales. The last British Archbishop of London, Theonas (Teon) fled to Viroconium in 586 when London fell to the pagan Saxons. The range of hills known now as the Stiperstones is called, in Welsh, Carneddi Teon in memory of him.
There have been important excavations at Wroxeter where a bath house has been revealed. Perhaps more interestingly, it is now known that the city was extensively re-planned in the 5th century and a building has been discovered which some suggest was the house of the bishops of Viroconium. At some point the city was abandoned. Two of the very earliest churches in Britain exist close to Viroconium: St Andrew, Wroxeter and St Eata, Atcham, both dating to at least the 7th century. So as the British migrated westward, abandoning Viroconium, the English moved behind them, being converted in due course following the missionary drive of St Oswald and St Aidan and then St Chad. It was following this period that a monastery for nuns was established at Much Wenlock by St Milburga around 670. The monastery quickly attracted substantial endowments and the land which is now the parish of Sutton was part of that endowment. It is from this time that Sutton (which means ‘South Town’) begins to be mentioned in recorded history. The church itself may be significantly older however. From excavations in the 1970’s we know that Sutton was occupied from prehistoric times and right through the Romano-British period. Amongst a number of interesting finds was a Neolithic watercourse which ran to a stone lined basin a few yards South East of Sutton church. It is suggested that this may have been a pagan site, Christianised to become a baptistery. This might account for the siting of our church.
Sutton is mentioned in the Doomsday Book as belonging to St Milburga (i.e. Wenlock Priory) “In Shrewsbury Hundred … The Church itself held and holds Sutton. 1 hide, 8 men both free men and villagers, with 4 ploughs. The value was 12s; now 16s.”
The manor of Sutton remained in the ownership of the monastery at Much Wenlock until the Hundred Years war when it passed to Shrewsbury Abbey. It is unthinkable that any monastery would own a manor without erecting some kind of church for the enlightenment of their tenants and we may assume this to be the case in Sutton. That it was not mentioned in the Doomsday Book is not odd. Only half of the known Saxon churches are mentioned, simply because the others were not reckoned to have a taxable value. The church was probably a very simple wooden building and about all we have to show for this period is the ancient stone font.
Between 1054 and 1204 the Western half of what had been the Roman Empire split away from the Orthodox Church in the East and became Roman Catholic. This event is referred to as “The Great Schism” and it was towards the end of this period, about 1200, that the church that we now see was built. The present church building was certainly built before 1278 because it is recorded in an inquisition document of that year as St Milburga’s. In 1535 the rent from the manor was worth £11 7s 0d to Wenlock Priory. The tithes of Sutton, paid to the vicar of Much Wenlock were worth £3 per annum. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Sutton along with a number of other monastic properties was bought by James Leveson, a Wolverhampton wool merchant, for £2,725 – a vast amount of money. Exactly who was looking after Sutton is not clear but the Rector was also Vicar of Much Wenlock, one Thomas Butler. This man, a University graduate, kept a journal of events in the parish which survived until 1859 when it was burnt in the fire at Wynnstay but not before it had been copied. Amongst the items in the journal is the following:-
“1547 Nov 7th The bones of the blessed virgin Milburga (with four images from neighbouring villages) were burnt at the churchyard entrance.” (Perhaps one of these images was one that stood in a niche in the East wall of Sutton church).
With the Reformation came another change of Faith for the worshippers in our church – Protestantism (Anglicanism). Judging by nineteenth and twentieth century histories of the period it could be thought that the English were eager and willing to accept the Reformation, the Dissolution of the monasteries and the Protestant faith. In fact this was very far from the truth, the changes were resented and unpopular and there was widespread resistance. In fact Protestantism was imposed by force: fines, imprisonment and, for some, the executioner’s axe. Some of this may be gleaned from Thomas Butler’s journal.
 Brigandine. These were typically padded sleeveless jackets which had strips of plate armour riveted to the padding on the inside. They were developed on the continent and were adopted in England towards the end of the 14th century. They became very popular in the 15th century.
 There is another medieval painting in Shrewsbury of the Last Supper in the King’s Head pub in Mardol. It is later than ours.
 Hide: a land unit reckoned at 120 acres.
His Eminence, Archbishop Gregorios
Thyateira and Great Britain
His Eminence was born in the present-day Turkish-occupied village of Marathovounos in the district of Famagusta, Cyprus, on 28th October 1928. He was the ninth and last child of the family of the builder Theocharis and his wife Maria Hadjitofi. At the age of three he was orphaned through his father’s death.
After completing his primary education at the village school, the eleven-year-old Gregorios became an apprentice as a shoemaker in his brother-in-law’s shop, where he worked for the next eight years.
At the age of twenty he decided to attend a secondary school for which he enrolled in 1949 at the Higher Commercial School of the town of Lefkoniko which, at that time, had only five classes. He was accepted in the second-year class.
|In 1951 he transferred to the famous Pan-Cyprian Gymnasium, Nicosia, having become a rasophor, and he was later ordained deacon on the Sunday of Pentecost, 1953 at the Church of St. Savvas in Nicosia by the late Archbishop Makarios III.
He graduated from the Gymnasium in 1954 and went to Athens to study at the Theological School of the University there. Before receiving his university degree in February 1959, he was appointed to the Church of All Saints in London, arriving there and starting his duties at the Church of All Saints in Camden Town in April 1959. He was ordained presbyter by the late Archbishop of Thyateira, Athenagoras Kawadas, on the 26th of the same month.
In 1964 he was appointed Chancellor of the Archdiocese of Thyateira. On 12th December 1970 he was consecrated Bishop of Tropaeou by the blessed former Archbishop of Thyateira Athenagoras Kokkinakis at the Cathedral of Sta Sophia. From the first day of his ordination he undertook to organize and administer the St. Mary’s Cathedral and the Church of St. Barnabas the Apostle in Wood Green, North London.
On 16th April 1988 he was unanimously elected by the Sacred Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain and his enthronement took place at the Cathedral of Sta. Sophia in West London.
Saint Llawddog , or Lleuddad , ( fl. 600? ), is said to have been the son of Dingad ab Nudd Hael , king of Bryn Buga (i.e. Usk ), and Tefrian or Tonwy , daughter of Lleuddyn Lwyddog . Few details are known about his life, but tradition maintains that he worked many miracles. He appears to have forsaken his father’s kingdom in order to live the life of a religious recluse with his brother BAGLAN in Caernarvonshire . His later years are linked with the isle of Bardsey . He was chosen abbot of the island’s religious community, and is said to have ended his days there. A Welsh ‘ Life of S. Llawddog ’ is preserved in National Library of Wales (late 16th cent.). The churches of Cenarth, Penboyr, Llanllawddog in Carmarthenshire and Cilgerran in Pembrokeshire were all originally dedicated to Llawddog. His memory is also perpetuated in the local topography of the places so named, in the form Lleuddad, in parts of the Llŷn peninsula . His feast-day is variously given as 15 Jan., 21 Jan. or 10 Aug.
The local parish Church is dedicated to Saint Llawddog. Although the present building is relatively modern, it is on an important ancient site, and was the “bishop house” of the Cantref of Emlyn.
Within the Churchyard is a stone with Ogam Scrip, still visible and a stone’s thow away on the south side of the river is the Holy Well of St Llawddog.